What is DNA Sequencing?
In order to determine which nucleotide is at what place precisely in a DNA molecule, the techniques of DNA sequencing are being made use of. A number of different techniques and methods are utilized in order to determine in which order the bases adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine appears within a strand of DNA. It would certainly not be wrong to state that the advent of DNA sequencing has largely enhances the medical as well as the biological research.
Diagnostics, forensic biology, biotechnology, virology etc may be only a few of the branches of biology in which DNA sequencing is considered a vital part of research. DNA sequencing is a technique that is being applied not only on the humans but also on certain kinds of animals, plants, as well as microorganisms in order to attain as much knowledge and information about the sphere of life on this planet as possible.
While the list of techniques and methods which are being utilized in order to sequence a particular segment of DNA may be a huge one, some of the conspicuous methods may include and are not confined to the following:
- Maxam-Gilbert Sequencing
- Chain-termination methods
With the advancement in technology however, there has been a number of advanced methods which may be utilized for DNA sequencing as well. Such methods may include the following:
- Shotgun sequencing
- Bridge PCR
- Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS)
- Polony sequencing
- 454 Pyrisequencing
- Illumina (Solexa) sequencing
- SOLiD sequencing
- Ion torrent semiconductor sequencing
- DNA nanoball sequencing
- Heliscope single molecule sequencing
- Single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing
A whole new and the most recent category of methods which can serve the purpose of DNA sequencing is called next generation sequencing. A few of the techniques which are used in next generation sequencing comprise of the following: