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What is Distillation?

What is Distillation? Distillation is a process that has been used by humankind for thousands of years ago. It was believed to be first used by the Arab chemists to separate perfume. Today, distillation plays a significant role in the organic chemistry. Chemists can identify and purify organic compounds using the distillation method. How is [...]

What is Urea?

What is Urea? Carbamide or more commonly known as urea is an organic chemical compound. This organic chemical compound is the waste product of the body when protein is metabolized. The liver is the organ responsible for breaking down proteins and amino acids to produce urea. Mammals, amphibians and some other fish have the ability [...]

What is pH?

What is pH? pH is a term in chemistry that is used as a unit of measurement for the acidity or basicity of solutions. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 0 as the most acidic and 14 as the most basic. A pH of 7 means the solution is neutral. Examples of [...]

What is Chemistry?

Chemistry is a physical science dealing with the composition of matter and how they react to one another. It is said to have been a true science around the 1600s, when the pioneering chemists began the study of the most basic structure of matter, such as elements and compounds. Chemistry is inextricably linked to physics, [...]

What does DDT stand for?

What does DDT stand for? DDT or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane is a type of synthetic pesticide which works by attacking the nerves of pests. Credit for its use as an effective pesticide goes to Paul Muller, a Swiss scientist who got a Nobel Prize in 1948 for this particular discovery. DDT as a pesticide became widely known [...]

What is Potassium Cyanide?

What is Potassium Cyanide? Potassium cyanide is crystalline inorganic compound that is colorless. It is referred to as KCN, which is also its molecular formula, and looks very similar to sugar. And just like sugar, potassium cyanide is water-soluble. Others also refer to it as hydrocyanic acid potassium salt. KCN or potassium cyanide is said [...]

What Is Water?

What Is Water? Being one of the four basic elements for survival, water has played a major part in the continued existence of life in this planet. This actually sets Earth apart from all other planets and has been considered as the only planet capable of sustaining life, up to this very moment. In fact, [...]

What is Rhodium?

What is Rhodium? Rhodium is a rare chemical element closely related to the platinum group. It is considered a transition metal with usually silvery white color. Rhodium that occur naturally are said to contain only one isotope. Due to its rarity as a precious metal, rhodium is considered the most expensive in its class. Rhodium [...]

What is SGC?

What is SGC? SGC stands for “soluble guanylyl cyclase” and it is a substance which is said to be the only known receptor for the compound nitric oxide or NO. Nitric Oxide is a very important molecule in humans for its cell signaling properties. It is also a big use in the chemical industry, though [...]

What Is XRD?

What Is XRD? If you are a mineralogist or a chemist, you might be very familiar of the process called XRD. XRD stands for X- Ray diffraction. It is a process often used in these fields. It is actually a technique of examining the chemical make- up of unidentified solids. Let us say for instance, [...]

What is Xenon used for?

What is Xenon used for? Xenon is noble or inert gas commonly used for lighting purposes. It can be used in making a variety of lamps or light fixtures such as strobe lights, electron tubes, bactericidal lamps, arc lamps, and head lamps. This particular chemical element is said to be heavy, has no odor and [...]

What is Neon used for?

What is Neon used for? Neon is a chemical element and is one of many noble gases found in the universe. It can rarely be found in this planet but is abundant in the rest of the universe. Under normal and standard conditions, this chemical element is said to give out a very distinct reddish [...]

What is Plutonium?

What is Plutonium? Plutonium is a highly radioactive metal that has a gray or silver color and is named after the dwarf planet Pluto. This metal is quite rare and can be found in ores rich in uranium but in trace amounts. It was said to be discovered in the year 1940 when uranium was [...]

What is CuO?

What is CuO? Are you looking for a pigment for ceramics that will produce blue, red, and green glazes? Or you want to make dry cell batteries? I know what you need; it’s Copper (II) Oxide. Copper (II) Oxide (CuO), also known as Cupric Oxide, is a black powder called as tenorite.  It melts up [...]

What is Nitrogen Fixation?

What is Nitrogen Fixation? Green plants require several important elements in order to make their food and carry out the various life sustaining processes they need to survive. One of these important elements is Nitrogen which happens to be the most abundant element in the earth’s atmosphere. However, the nitrogen in the atmosphere is not [...]

What is Glycogen?

What is Glycogen? Glycogen is a molecule that is derived from glucose and is primarily stored in liver and muscle cells for use later as energy. These molecules are stored by the body when there is excess starch or carbohydrates for energy consumption. They will only be activated for use after the carbohydrates are used [...]

What is CaCO3?

What is CaCO3? CaCO3 is a chemical formula for the compound called Calcium Carbonate. It is composed of three elements namely Calcium, Carbon, and Oxygen. It is a solid compound which is white, non-toxic, and odorless. Practically the earth’s own crust contains this mineral making it one of the most abundant raw materials that can [...]

What is Hydrogen?

What is Hydrogen? Hydrogen is a simple chemical element in which its atom consists only of one proton and one electron. It is a type of gas with no odor and color and is widely abundant across our own universe. It is said to be lightest among all chemical elements when measured at normal temperatures [...]

What is Dry Ice?

What is Dry Ice? When you freeze carbon dioxide, the end product will be dry ice. Carbon dioxide is what animals and humans exhale in which plants utilize for the production of their food or the process called photosynthesis. Dry ice has a very low temperature and is typically used as coolant. The temperature of [...]

What is Activation Energy?

What is Activation Energy? Activation energy refers to the amount of energy required by certain chemicals for them to have a reaction. Some chemicals are able to react with each other immediately if placed in close proximity. But there are other chemical types that need some extra push to gain some sort of activity between [...]

What is Benzene?

What is Benzene? Benzene is a chemical compound which exists in the liquid state. The credit of isolation of the compound goes to Michael Faraday. The word benzene is derived from the word “Benjamin” which means gum resin. It is colorless and possesses a sweet smell. Benzene is known to catch fire easily. Carbon and [...]

What is Lithium?

What is Lithium? Lithium carries the symbol Li in the periodic table of elements. It is a metal characterized by an exceptionally soft and silver-gray in color. The metal is considered exceptionally reactive and so it is used in a wide range of industrial applications. Industries use Lithium in the form of compounds and alloys. [...]

What is Buffer Solution?

What is Buffer Solution? A buffer solution is a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base (the resulting substance when an acid’s hydrogen is removed) in water, and in some cases a weak base and its conjugate acid in water. This solution is resistant to changes in its pH level when mixed with [...]

What is Dimethicone?

What is Dimethicone? Dimethicone is an ingredient used in widely commercialized skin and hair care products. Shampoos are one of the many hair care products containing dimethicone. Dimethicone is actually a silicon oil that is, when mixed with shampoos, will make your hair shiny and slippery. Knowing if the skin care of hair care product [...]

What is Heat of Fusion?

What is Heat of Fusion? Heat of fusion is the thermal energy that needs to be added in order to turn a solid into liquid (melting) or the thermal energy that needs to be subtracted in order to turn a liquid into solid (solidification). The transformation from solid to liquid and liquid to solid occurs [...]

What is Nitrogen?

What is Nitrogen? Nitrogen is a gaseous element that is abundantly found in the Earth’s atmosphere. This particular element has no taste, odor, or color and is said to be an important component for various living organisms. Nitrogen is part of the air that animals and humans breathe and this chemical element is also part [...]

What is Krypton?

What is Krypton? Krypton is a chemical element that is considered a noble gas similar to Neon. This particular gaseous element has no taste, color, and odor and can only be found in trace amounts in the Earth’s atmosphere or only about one part per million. Because of its scarcity, this element presents difficulty in [...]

What is PVA?

What is PVA? PVA or polyvinyl alcohol is a synthetic form of polymer that has no color, no odor, and can be dissolved in water. Much of PVA is used in the textile and paper industries. These synthetic polymers provide strength to sheets of textiles and helps paper products resist stains from greases and/or oily [...]

What is ClO4?

What is ClO4? ClO4 is the chemical notation for perchlorate. It is an ion that is derived from HClO4 or perchloric acid. Perchlorates are also salts which can be found naturally on soil, surface water, and ground water. This chemical ion can also be found “man-made” particularly in manufacturing industries. Perchlorates are used in a [...]

What is KCLO4?

What is KCLO4? KCL04 is the chemical notation for potassium perchlorate. It is an inorganic type of salt that is usually found in crystalline form and with no color. Potassium perchlorate is commonly used as an oxidizer and because of this property it is used by several industries. With easy reaction to many organic substances, [...]

What is Citric Acid?

What is Citric Acid? Citric acid is a substance that can naturally be found in citrus fruits. It is considered a weak and inorganic acid that easily mixes with a variety of liquids. Because of its dissolving properties, citric acid is commonly used in the food and softdrinks industry. It gives off the characteristic sour [...]

What is NaOH?

What is NaOH? NaOH is the chemical formula for sodium hydroxide.  This chemical substance is also known as caustic soda or lye.  In its pure state, sodium hydroxide is white in color and is commonly found in the form of pellets, granules, or flakes.  Sodium hydroxide is also highly soluble in water and has high [...]

What is CFC?

What is CFC? CFC is short for chlorofluorocarbons and they refer to a compound that is composed of three chemicals namely chlorine, carbon, and fluorine.  CFC is a chemical compound that is considered man-made and dangerous to the environment.  As a chemical compound, CFCs are known to be colorless and have a sweet odor. CFC [...]

What is beryl?

What is beryl? Beryl is short for beryllium aluminum cyclosilicate.  It is a popular mineral because it occurs in a variety of colors, with many of them considered very precious.  When one speaks of beryl, many people automatically think about gemstones and jewelry.  In its pure form, beryl is said to possess no color.  Along [...]

What is “AMU” in chemistry?

“AMU” refers to “atomic mass unit.”  This particular system of measurement is also referred to as a “dalton” with the symbol “Da.”  As a form of measurement, the AMU is used to indicate the so-called mass of an atom or molecule.  When talking about the mass of a particular molecule, for example, it simply refers [...]

What is FPLC?

“FPLC” stands for “fast protein liquid chromatography,” and it refers to a procedure in chemistry that makes use of two techniques in combination.  These two techniques are liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.  The former technique deals with the separation of chemicals in liquid while the latter technique specializes in the measurement of the mass and [...]

What are BFRs?

What are BFRs? BFRs, or brominated flame retardants, are chemical compounds that are mixed with other substances to reduce their combustibility.  As the name suggests, they are used with the intention of lessening the chance of combustion for some materials and substances. BMR chemicals are used in the manufacture of various products including clothes and [...]

What is a DDT chemical?

“DDT chemical” refers to “dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane,” a chemical that has no color, odor, or taste.  It appears crystal-like and in a solid form created by synthetic means.  It is widely used as an insecticide, and it belongs to the halogen family of compounds. The formulation of DDT was said to be first made back in 1874 [...]

What are cohesion and adhesion?

“Cohesion” and “adhesion” are properties demonstrated by certain particles, substances, or surfaces when they are combined or mixed with each other. The main difference is that when two different particles or substances are combined, the term used for the particle’s tendencies to stick together is called adhesion.  On the other hand, “cohesion” refers to the [...]

What is mbdb?

MBDB refers to a chemical substance called Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine. It is classified as a stimulant and psychedelic chemical but is only used for research and not for human consumption. This simply means that the commercial use of this drug is prohibited and it should be used solely for the purpose of laboratory research. MBDB is part [...]

What is arsenic?

Arsenic is a chemical that is found in people’s natural environment, particularly the Earth’s crust. As a mineral and chemical substance, arsenic is classified as a metalloid and has metal-like properties. This explains why arsenic is commonly used in combination with other elements to produces stronger alloys for example. Since arsenic is naturally sourced from [...]

What Is KClO3?

KClO3 is also known as potassium chlorate. Potassium chlorate is a compound which contains potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms. KClO3 is the molecular formula used to denote potassium chlorate in chemical equations. It is a white crystalline substance when in pure form. Students of chemistry are introduced to this chemical in the chemistry lab, where [...]

What is MnS04?

What is MnS04? MnS04 is the chemical formula for manganese sulfate. As a chemical compound, manganese sulfate has a pinkish color and is naturally found in some plants and vegetables including whole grains, nuts, and legumes among many others. MnSO4 may also be labelled as MnS04-H20 and referred to as manganese sulfate monohydrate. The manganese [...]

What is ionization?

In uninterrupted conditions and circumstances, most ions or atoms are classified as neutrally charged.  This simply means that the number of protons and electrons they contain are equal in number.  Protons contain positive charge while the electrons contain negative charge. When these ions or atoms lose or gain either one proton or electron, they undergo [...]

What is cetearyl alcohol?

Cetearyl alcohol is a type of alcohol that is part of the fatty alcohol group commonly used as thickening or emulsifying agents in many household and cosmetic products.  It is formed by combining cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol which are considered very useful in terms of substance absorption and texture which are very important properties [...]

What is glycol?

Glycol is an organic compound that belongs to the alcohol group.  One molecule of glycol is composed of two hydroxyl groups that is commonly attached to various atoms of carbon.  When speaking about glycol, most people also refer to “ethylene glycol” which is considered the simplest form of glycol.  Another popular derivative of the glycol [...]

What is HC03?

HC03 is the chemical formula for bicarbonates. These are substances that are formed from the removal of protons from the main substance called carbonic acid. When ions Of opposite charges come in contact with each other, it will result in the formation of bicarbonate salts. These salts are typically water-soluble given that the conditions are [...]

What it distilled water?

Distilled water is the water produced from the process of distillation wherein water is boiled first and then the resulting steam will be collected into another container.  This second container will then hold the distilled water.  The process of distillation may be done several times in order to remove possible microbes and/or impurities in the [...]

What is neutralization?

In the field of chemistry, neutralization is a process that produces salt and water out of combining and acidic substance with a basic substance.  Acids and bases have opposite pH levels.  Substances, solutions, or compounds that have a pH of 1 to 6 are classified as acids.  Those with pH levels of 8 to 14 [...]

What is alchemy?

Alchemy is an ancient practice or tradition of creating something out of another thing.  In the past, alchemists were known transform objects like basic metals into gold and silver for example.  They are also able to create potions and elixirs to promote long life and youthfulness.  Alchemy was said to be practiced by ancient Arabs, [...]

What is libido?

Libido is defined as a person’s sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.  In relation to science, all animals including humans have this so-called innate desire or longing for procreation. This inner desire is initially thought of as something biological in nature.  This is because a person’s hormonal levels are said to dictate whether a [...]