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What is condensation?

Condensation is a process that converts a gas substance into liquid form. The substance that undergoes condensation is chemically the same with only its physical state changing. The process involved in condensation is often referred to as the reverse of evaporation wherein liquids turn to gas. At certain temperatures and pressures, various chemicals may transform [...]

What is argon?

Argon is the most abundant noble gas present in the Earth. About 1% of the Earth’s atmosphere is composed of Argon. In terms of behavior, Argon is considered very stable but not totally inert. This gaseous chemical has no color and no odor and/or taste. It is also considered safe and non-toxic making it very [...]

What is amplitude?

Amplitude refers to the energy possessed by different waves. Higher levels of amplitude simply correspond to higher energy levels that are present on a particular wave. When measuring amplitude, the distance is taken between the wave’s static location and the farthest point reached by the particles involved. The farther these particles are away from the [...]

What is atomic radius?

Atomic radius is a measurement used in atoms involving the distance from the center or nucleus to the outermost parts of the electrons. In a single atom, the nucleus is typically situated at the center with the protons scattered in the middle. The negatively-charged ions called electrons typically surround all atomic components and form the [...]

What is atomic mass?

Atomic mass refers to specific weight of a specific atom or atomic particle. The value for atomic mass also includes sub-atomic particles and their specific masses. As opposed to atomic weight which is also referred to as relative or average atomic mass, the value given for atomic mass is considered specific. Atomic weight involves averaging [...]

What is crystal?

Crystals are objects or solid materials that are formed from atoms and molecules that are arranged in a very orderly fashion. This internal structure makes crystals unique from each other but the arrangement of the small components are very specific and recognizable when viewed under a microscope. With the highly arranged components of crystals, these [...]

What is gravitational potential energy?

Gravitational potential energy is the amount of energy present in an object that is placed in a gravitational field. Depending on various factors such as the pull of gravity itself and the mass of the object, its gravitational potential energy will change along with its position in the presence of gravity. Placing an object above [...]

What is histology?

Histology is the microscopic study of cells and tissues of plants and animals including human beings. The term histology is taken from two Greek words “histos” and “logia”. Histos refers to tissue while logia is the Greek word for knowledge. In histology, the microscopic structure of tissues and cells are being studied and documented along [...]

What is Delta H?

In the field of chemistry, delta H literally represents a change in system enthalpy. The delta symbol represents the actual change while the H is for enthalpy. Enthalpy in its most basic is the change in the amount or presence of heat in a given system. Considering that change is happening to a chemical reaction [...]

What is molecular weight?

Molecular weight refers to the weight or mass of a particular molecule. Substances are basically composed of molecules and their total mass represents their molecular weight. Molecular weight and molecular mass are terms that can be used interchangeably. For scientists, determining the molecular weight of a substance can help them study other properties of substances [...]

What is fluorescence?

Fluorescence refers to a state wherein light is emitted by a substance in response to the presence of photons. Photons are the particles that are able to produce light and when they are excited, the substance involved will be able to emit light making it acquire the property of fluorescence. Whenever light is glowing from [...]

What is Generation Y?

Generation Y refers to demographic covering people that were born around the early 1980s up to the early 2000s. This particular generation or group of people basically followed Generation X or people born in the 70s-80s. Researchers have classified people to different generations in terms of characteristics, skills, and/or behavior. People that are part of [...]

What is light made of?

Light is created through energy, specifically the energy created by an electromagnetic radiation. Whenever this kind of energy is present, light can be produced. This simply points to the fact that light is made of energy. Whenever there is an electric charge, electromagnetic waves will be generated and this energy will then help produce light [...]

What is epistasis?

Epistasis refers to a condition wherein different genes interact with each other with one or more genes having dominance in terms of expression while the other genes’ traits are masked or covered. Unlike standard dominant genetic types which occur within one gene, epistasis involves two different genes. The so-called dominant gene will be able to [...]

What is mutualism?

In the field of biology, mutualism refers to a process or interaction between two different organisms or species that presents benefits for both parties. Some people refer to this interaction between species as cooperation because the two species involved are literally cooperating with each other and thus giving each other benefits. This particular relationship is [...]

What is hydrolysis?

Hydrolysis refers to a chemical process wherein compounds react with water. The typical result of this chemical reaction is the breakdown of the molecules of the compound involved and that of water. For water that is composed of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom, reaction with other compounds results to the splitting of these [...]

What is anti-matter?

Anti-matter refers to material that has the opposite properties to matter with the latter being composed of atoms and various particles with corresponding charges. Anti-matter on the other hand also have similar components but have the opposite charge. The electrons in matter have negative charge while the protons have positive charge. In anti-matter, the atom [...]

What is HN03?

HN03 is the chemical symbol for the compound nitric acid. This acid is naturally clear and colorless but may become yellowish as it decomposes or comes in contact with water. Out of many inorganic compounds and acids, nitric acid renders itself useful to various industries including the explosives and fertilizer industry. Most people may find [...]

What is detritus?

Detritus refers to distinct particles of dead organic material combined with some microorganisms that feed on it. When plants and animals die for example, part of them will remain and decompose with the assistance of microorganisms. This leftover material or particle will settle in the soil, on sea beds or even float in water. This [...]

What is incomplete dominance?

In the field of genetics, incomplete dominance basically refers to cases wherein one allele or part of one gene is unable to dominate the other allele when combined together. This condition is also referred to as partial domination wherein neither one allele is able to dominate the other in terms of its genetic properties and [...]

What is Bernoulli’s principle?

Bernoulli’s principle refers to a law in physics that once the speed of a liquid or gas increases, the corresponding pressure also decreases. With this principle, fluids or gas particles for example are said to have a faster pace as long as the pressure within is also lowered. This particular law or principle was discovered [...]

What is symbiosis?

Symbiosis is a relationship between organisms which mutually benefits both organisms that are not from the same kind or same species. Symbiosis requires constant physical contact. Symbiosis comes in different forms. More on symbiosis One example of symbiosis is when both organisms need the symbiotic relationship so each can live. This type of symbiosis is [...]

What is HCHO?

HCHO is the formula for formaldehyde which is a compound chemical that comes in different forms. Formaldehyde under room temperature is a distinctive and colorless substance that has a pungent smell. It is also a gaseous compound that is flammable. Formaldehyde has many uses especially in the industries of construction and manufacturing such as the [...]

What is Force?

Force refers to interactions that result to change in motion of any given object. The interactions may either be physical in nature or purely non-physical. A force that results from interactions that are not physical in nature is referred to as action-at-a-distance. Such include magnetic, electrical and magnetic force. Forces that result from interactions that [...]

What is Area?

Area refers to a quantity that shows the extent of two dimensional shapes or figures on a plane. Surface area is the depiction of two dimensional surfaces of an object that has three dimensions. Area may be said to be the quantity of material that has a specified thickness that is necessary to develop a [...]

What is Cyanide?

Cyanide is a type of chemical that is form when carbon triple-bonds with nitrogen. Such combination can also be mixed up with other metals to form various compounds, such as sodium cyanide, potassium cyanide, and hydrogen cyanide. Cyanide is often correlated to a deadly poison because it has been involved in fishing issues. In many [...]

What is graphene?

Graphene refers to a material composed of carbon atoms that bond together to form hexagonal rings that are connected with each other. This allotrope of carbon atoms bonding together produces a very thin sheet of material which is even thinner than paper. When observed microscopically, the hexagonal rings which are inter-connected with each other look [...]

What is embryology?

Embryology is the science that deals with how life is formed and is included in the studies about developmental biology. Developmental biology focuses on how life forms on earth start until these life forms are functioning organs that are fully formed. Embryology examines the start of life from the sperm or egg and studies the [...]

What is cap and trade?

Cap and trade is a method or approach used to control greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions are the primary cause of global warming. The cap and trade operates by putting a “cap” and by creating “trade”. There is a cap or ceiling on the allowable emissions. The goal is to lower the cap over time [...]

What is KOH?

KOH refers to Potassium Hydroxide, which is also called lye or caustic potash. Together with sodium hydroxide, it creates a strong base that releases OH- in the solution. KOH can be corrosive and in the presence of acids, can also be explosive. Potassium hydroxide may come in the form of white or yellowish lumps, pellets, [...]

What is Germination?

Germination is the process by which a seed grows into plant. In botany and gardening, it is used to reproduce certain genre of plants. It also refers to the process of growing plants through seeding or sprouting. Unlike other process, it is considered as the most natural process of growing plants. Some plants can germinate [...]

What is Greenhouse Effect?

Greenhouse Effect is the result when harmful gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide (N20), andozone, and fluorinated gases are trapped in the earth’s surface, causing temperature to rise. When the greenhouse gases are ensnared in the atmosphere, it allows the sun’s short wavelength radiation to get through the earth, therefore causing global [...]

What is igneous rock?

Igneous rock is one of the three major types of rocks formed through the solidification of molten rock or magma. The other types of rocks are the sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. Unlike the two, igneous rock may be form even without crystallization. The history of igneous rock can be traced back to the Roman [...]

What is Leap Year?

Leap year refers to a year that has an extra day or month. Leap year is also known as a bissextile or an intercalary year. A leap year such as in the lunisolar calendar has an additional month because it needs to be synchronized with the seasonal or astronomical year. Since astronomical events and seasons [...]

What is Friction?

Friction refers to the resistance to motion of one object in relation to another thing. Unlike gravity, friction is not considered a type of fundamental force. According to scientists, this is actually caused by the electromagnetic attraction among various charged particles when the surfaces of two objects touched. There are two major kinds of friction, [...]

What is Echolocation?

Just like radar or sonar, echolocation refers to the production and use of sounds with ultra-high frequency for the purpose of navigation and location of prey. The term echolocation was coined by Donald Griffin, who was the one who demonstrated that bats make use of this method. Marine animals and bats use echolocation in order [...]

What is Arable Land?

In the field of geography, the agricultural term arable land refers to a land which can be used to grow crops. The term came from the Latin word arare, which means “to plough.” Arable land is different from cultivated land and involves all land wherein the climate and soil is perfect for agriculture, such as [...]

What is Malic Acid?

Introduction: Malic acid as the name indicates is an organic decarboxylic acid found in many fruits (Cherry, apple) that has many functions in the body. Many plants produce their own malic acid while in animals it mainly functions as an energy source mainly converting carbohydrates in to energy. It is a very important substance both [...]

What is Catalyst?

Catalyst is a term used to refer to any element that fastens the rate at which a reaction takes place without getting consumed. A catalyst can either be synthetic, metallic or organic. Enzymes are catalysts that occur naturally and are responsible for numerous important biochemical reactions. Many catalysts that are in solid form are metals [...]

What is Luster?

Luster is a term used to describe the overall sheen of a mineral’s surface. The sheen of a mineral may be similar to that of a polished metal as well as that of a metal that is unpolished and pitted by tear and wear. Minerals may also have sheens similar to glass or earthy, dull [...]

What is mitochondrial DNA?

Mitochondrial DNA is the genetic material that is composed of the mitochondria—the structure that is found inside the cells that works by converting food to energy into cells that the body uses. Mitochondria like most of the DNAs come with chromosomes inside the nucleus and as such they have their own DNA inside in small [...]

What is artificial selection?

Artficial selection refers to the process of breeding animals or plants with the intention of getting desired and wanted traits or characteristics. The point of artificial selection does not deal with increasing the chances of survival for the new produce or offspring but rather only the good traits are desired to be present in them. [...]

What is carbon dioxide?

Carbon dioxide is a gaseous chemical compound that naturally occurs in the atmosphere. It is composed of two oxygen atoms combined with one carbon atom. This particular gas has no odor and color and is soluble in water. A part of the air in the atmosphere is from the air that people breathe out upon [...]

What is chlorophyll?

Chlorophyll is a pigment that is present in plants and helps make them food for their own growth and development. With the aid of sunlight in a process called photosynthesis, the chlorophyll pigment in plant will help convert water into glucose. Glucose is a type of sugar and provides the energy source for plants to [...]

What is law of conservation of mass?

The Law of conservation of mass is a law in chemistry formulated by Antoine Lavoisier back in 1789. This law basically states that the mass of matter or objects are conserved or does not change even if it undergoes change or chemical reaction. The mass of an object remains constant despite going through a chemical [...]

What is mass number?

Mass number refers to the total number of protons and neutrons contained in a single element. The mass number is an essential factor in determining the isotopic mass, which is measured using atomic mass. Every isotope contains different mass number but may differ in atomic number. For instance, there may be more neutrons compared to [...]

What is coral?

A coral is a type of an animal that lives underwater. It belongs to the family of phylum cnidaria, a group used by scientists to refer to animals that share the same characteristics. Because of its colorful nature, it is often mistaken as a plant. It comes in a wide array of species and is [...]

What is Mixture?

In the field of chemistry, a mixture simply refers to the type of material system which is composed of two or more substances that are mixed together, but are not chemically combined. Basically, a mixture is only the physical combination of substances, and may come in the form of suspensions, colloids, or solutions. A mixture [...]

What is Geometry?

Geometry is a term used to refer to a branch in mathematics that deals with geometrical objects such as straight lines, points and circles and other shapes. However, circles are the most elementary of geometric objects. The term geometry was derived from a Greek word, ‘geo’ which means earth and metron, meaning measure. These words [...]

What is Fluoride?

Fluoride is an element that occurs naturally in water, soil, foods and varied minerals like fluorite and fluorapatite. Out of all elements found on earth’s crust, fluoride ranks 13th in abundance. Fluoride is a chemical ion in the fluorine element. It contains one additional electron that makes its charge negative. In seawater, the amount of [...]

What is Conduction?

Conduction is a term used to describe the process of transferring heat from point to another using a substance. The speed at which heat passes through a substance differs from one substance to another. Metallic substances are considered to be good conductors of heat because the speed at which heat is transmitted through them is [...]

What is Chromatin?

Chromatin is a term used to refer to a mix of histone, DNA as well as other proteins making up chromosomes. It is contained in eukaryotic cell’s nuclear envelope. Chromatin is divided into a condensed form known as heterochromatin and an extended form known as euchromatin. The euchromatin form participates in transcribing RNA, the component [...]

What is Barometric Pressure?

Barometric pressure refers to the weight of air that presses on the earth. Barometric pressure is also referred to as air pressure. When the barometric pressure is low, it is an indication of rising weight of overlying air and high barometric pressure implies reducing weight of overlying air. Barometric pressure has a significant effect on [...]

What is DNA Sequencing?

Introduction: In order to determine which nucleotide is at what place precisely in a DNA molecule, the techniques of DNA sequencing are being made use of. A number of different techniques and methods are utilized in order to determine in which order the bases adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine appears within a strand of DNA. [...]

What is mitosis?

Mitosis is the scientific term for cell division. For various living organisms, the cells undergo mitosis for the purpose of growth and development. In the case of animals for example, cells need to divide in order to make room for more cells. The more cells are divided, the more cells will also be created for [...]

What is ISS?

ISS stands for the international space station which is the biggest space station or object that has gone into space. People may see the ISS even without any gadgets from the earth. The ISS is made up of external trusses, solar arrays, pressurized modules and other items and it was first launched in 1998. This [...]

What is a Factor Tree?

A factor tree is a method of generating the prime factorization of a regular number. The primary step in developing a factor tree is to discover a couple of elements whose item is the number that we are calculating. These two components are the first expanding in the factor tree. There are regularly a few [...]

What is Gestation Period?

The term gestation refers to the process through which a fetus or embryo develops in a female mammal. Generally, gestation applies to mammals as well as some specific non-mammals. During pregnancy, mammals can have only one gestation or even more than one gestation at a go. Gestation period refers to the time or duration over [...]

What is LPG?

LPG is the short version of Liquefied Petroleum Gas. LPG is an altered chemical compound of natural gas though LPG and natural gas are both hydrocarbons. LPG is made up of propane, which has 8 hydrogen atoms and 3 carbon atoms, and butane, which has 10 hydrogen atoms and 4 carbon atoms. When a comparison [...]

What is LCM?

LCM is an acronym for Least Common Multiple or Lowest Common Multiple. It is an integral aspect in mathematics distinguished as two or more multiples of a certain number. For instance, if you want to find the LCM of 3 and 5, you first need to least all the multiples of number “3”. That is [...]

What is Interval Notation?

An interval notation is a mathematical method of writing down a set of numbers along an axis. It is also used to describe a specific group of numbers along the X-Axis. In another way, it may be synonymous to a way of writing subsets of the real number line. Looking at the linear equation, the [...]

What is GLA?

GLA is an abbreviation for gamma-linoleic acid. GLA is an omega-6 fatty acid found mainly in plant-based oils like oils in borage seeds, evening primrose and black currant seeds. Omega-6 fats are regarded as crucial fatty acids. They are important in the health of human beings but are not generated by the body. Instead, these [...]

What is Ireland Known For?

Ireland is an island located west of the United Kingdom in the Northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Ireland is separated from the UK by the Irish Sea, St. George’s Channel and the North Channel. Ireland is the largest and major island in the British Isles archipelago. Among the islands in Europe, it is the [...]

What is Refraction?

The term refraction simply refers to the bending of waves because of the variations in speed when these waves pass from one medium into another. Although people usually associate this phenomenon with light, it can also be linked with sound. Refraction occurs when waves travel from one medium to another at a particular angle, and [...]

What is Lake Effect Snow?

Lake effect snow refers to a type of snowfall which is localized and happens when a mass of cool air moves over a body of water that is warmer, and produces a temperature profile in the area’s atmosphere that can be considered as unstable. When this occurred, clouds form over the lake and transform into [...]

What is Genetic Drift?

Genetic drift, which is also called allelic drift, refers to the change in terms of the frequency of an allele or gene variant in a particular population because of random sampling. The alleles in a child are a sample of the parents’ alleles and probability has an influence on whether a particular person will survive [...]

What is Equilibrium?

Equilibrium refers to a particular state wherein there is no net change that is occurring. Equilibrium involves something which is regarded as balanced or stable, and this state is very rare. Typically, this state only happens for very limited periods of time until another factor interfere with the stability. The concept of equilibrium is essential [...]

What is an emulsion?

An emulsion is a substance that is created by adding two liquids that cannot combine with each other equally. Emulsions are also referred to as colloids wherein one substance will be the dispersing liquid while the other is the one being dispersed. Since the two liquids cannot be equally combined, there is a great tendency [...]

What is Composite Number?

Introduction: All integers greater than 1 are divided mainly into two groups, prime and Composite numbers. A positive number which has only itself and 1 as factors is a prime number while all other integers belong to the group of Composite Numbers. So, by definition: A positive integer divisible by another positive number other than [...]

What is fear?

In medical terms, fear is a series of reaction that occurs in the brain in response to a stress stimulant. The reaction ends with chemicals being released causing a rise in heartbeat, faster breathing and energetic muscles. This body response is commonly referred to as fight or flight. Fear may be stimulated by internal as [...]