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What is a debt ceiling?

A debt ceiling is a set limit to the amount of money that can be borrowed by a person or organization.  Debt ceilings are typically given specific amounts or values in order to put clarity in terms of exactly how much can be borrowed.  When this particular limit has been reached, borrowing may not be […]

What is debt ceiling?

Debt ceiling refers to some kind of limit imposed by the US Congress for its own government.  The limit or ceiling on US debt is basically set to prevent the government from exhausting all its resources and engage in overspending.  Putting a limit on how the US government spends or borrows is one direct way […]

What is EOWA?

EOWA or the Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency is an organization that is run by the Australian government to help promote equality in the workplace especially for women. The main goal or function of the agency is to monitor eligible companies and organizations across Australia in terms of giving women the same […]

What is Lean?

Lean refers to a philosophy or practice that is applied to production or other aspects of business with the main goal of minimizing wastage without compromising the so-called product or value for clients and/or customers. The core philosophy of so-called lean organizations is to provide customers with value for their products for example with a […]

What is FedEx SmartPost?

FedEx SmartPost refers to a shipping or mail-delivery service by Federal Express with its partner the US Postal Service. Such service is provided by the private-public partnership of FedEx and USPS and involves sending parcels that are classified as low-weight with residential addresses as destinations. For people who wish to send light documents and parcels […]

What is fracking?

Fracking is a type of drilling that uses hydraulics to extract natural gas from the deep parts of the earth. Also referred to as hydraulic fracking, this technique involves forming additional passageways or fractures in the deeper layers of rock in order for natural gas to be extracted. The common process of vertical drilling is […]

What is bitcoin?

Bitcoin refers to a digital or electronic form of payment or currency system.  It works through a specific application on a person’s computer or mobile phone.  The value of bitcoins that a person has can be used for online payments for goods and services.  Bitcoins are likened to some kind of virtual money or wallet […]

What is CGL insurance?

CGL insurance refers to Commercial General Liability insurance policies that are applicable to businesses, whether big or small. This type of insurance basically helps protect business owners from possible lawsuits wherein there is bodily injury involved or when there is damage in one’s property. This type of insurance basically gives protection to a business in […]

What is hegemonic power?

Hegemonic power refers to power, status, or influence towards others in an indirect manner. If applied in a society or group of people for example, hegemonic power is typically assumed by a dominant group from within. If a certain group has a certain influence over the other groups within one society, then this kind of […]

What is GLD system?

GLD stands for Gold London Delivery and it refers to a system or standard in terms of classifying gold bars or bullions into its specific size, weight, and corresponding identification details such as its registry or serial numbers. The GLD system also includes several records of the gold bullion particularly the characteristic stamp or hallmark […]

What is loan modification?

Loan modification refers to a process wherein the terms of an existing loan are changed or modified because of the borrower’s inability to payoff his/her loan under existing terms and condition. In many cases, some borrowers are not able to pay their debts at specified amounts and periods of time. When this happens, the money […]

What is DLF in India?

DLF or Delhi Land and Finance is India’s biggest real estate developer.  Officially known as DLF Limited, this company is mainly involved in developing residential complexes, commercial buildings, and retail spaces across India. For businesses and individuals who wish to get assistance from land acquisition concerns to development proper, DLF Limited is one of the […]

What does LLP mean?

LLP stands for Limited Liability Partnerships and as its name suggests, this type of partnership involves limited liabilities for all partners involved in a formed company or organization for example.  LLP types of partnerships basically imposes that any wrongful doing or mistake by one partner does not make the other partners liable to it.  Forming […]

What is CMF indicator?

CMF indicator refers to the Chaikin Money Flow index or indicator.  In the field of finance and investments, money flow indicators such as the one created by Chaikin is basically used to assess the flow of money in stock trading.  Using several days of stock trading as the main source of data, money flow may […]

What is ley farming?

Ley farming is a farming technique that involves the alternate planting of legumes or other crops with grassland pasture.  some people also call this type of farming as a type of crop rotation while others refer to it as alternate husbandry.  The main feature of alternate farming is that a piece of land is planted […]

What is fee simple?

Fee simple refers to a term in the real estate industry that corresponds to absolute ownership to a particular piece of land or estate. It is considered to be the highest type of estate or land ownership because by virtue of law this type of ownership is exclusive and absolute. The only restrictions to a […]

What is KEC?

KEC is an Indian company that specializes in manufacturing electrical transmission towers and providing communications infrastructure not only in India but to several countries around the world. KEC is officially known as KEC International Limited and as manufacturer of electrical transmission towers, this company is considered the second largest in the world. KEC started out […]

What is CMU in masonry?

CMU stands for concrete masonry unit and they are also referred to as concrete or cement blocks that are used in constructing houses and buildings. Concrete masonry units are pre-cast from concrete and other materials like sand, gravel, and various aggregates from cinder or clinker. The center part of these concrete blocks is made hollow […]

What is a CDX index?

CDX is short for credit derivative index and it is part of a group of indices called CDS or credit default swap. Under CDS, the index that covers various emerging markets and existing credit markets in North America is the CDX. Companies that are based in other countries like those in Europe or Asia for […]

What is government spending?

Government spending refers to the expenditures and investments made by a particular government for a particular state, country, or its citizens. Depending on what is needed by a particular country or society for example, governments may choose to acquire goods and/or services. In some instances, government spending may also be directed investing for the future. […]

What is Lehman shock?

Lehman shock refers to the shock 2008 filing of bankruptcy in of Lehman Brothers, one of the US and the world’s largest financial services firm. In the US alone, Lehman’s bankruptcy was considered the biggest in financial history with assets of the organization reported to be around 600 billion US dollars. It was in September […]

What is FTB reconciliation?

FTB reconciliation refers to an accounting process wherein the filed tax income a particular individual or family is checked and compared with the actual benefits received through the FTB or the Family Tax Benefit. This particular benefit payment is given to eligible individuals and families who have dependent children under their care. A basic requirement […]

What are IDFC bonds?

IDFC bonds refer to fixed-income financial instruments issued by the IDFC firm or the Infrastructure Development Finance Company. IDFC is considered one of India’s most trusted organizations in the field of infrastructure and financial services. Founded back in 1997, the IDFC has provided support to various infrastructure projects across India and helped many people with […]

What is efficiency?

What is efficiency? Efficiency refers to a state wherein tasks or activities are done within the least possible time, cost, or effort. Efficiency is also related to productivity wherein goals are reached and tasks are completed in the most reasonable way possible. Under all circumstances, efficiency points to doing things and accomplishing tasks in the […]

What is GRP?

GRP stands for Gross Rating Point and it refers to a generalized measure or representation of an audience that a particular media campaign is able to reach.  The media or advertising campaign may be in the form of a TV commercial, a print ad, or a radio spot.  What matters is the statistical estimate of […]

What is Macroeconomics?

Economics can be classified in to two groups, namely macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics examines the performance, behavior, decision making and structure of an economy as a whole. Global, national and regional economics fall under the category of macroeconomics. Macroeconomics deals with price indices, GDP, unemployment and other such aggregated indicators. Factors such as employment rate, […]

What is BTEC?

BTEC stands for Business and Technology Education Council and it pertains to the organization that is authorized to award qualifications in various vocational courses offered by schools in the UK and in many countries around the world. The qualifications offered by this organization range from business courses, to sports science and engineering. The concept of […]

What is CFED?

CFED stands for Corporation for Enterprise Development, a non-profit organization based in the US. The basic goal of the organization is to help out low income or poor families get the opportunities they deserve in terms of financial stability, educational options, overall economic opportunities. Through various policies and its partnerships with local communities and organizations, […]

What is EQECAT?

EQECAT is a company involved in providing insurance and financial-related services for various clients in the field of risk modeling, property and casualty insurance. The basic services of EQECAT helps various businesses have the right information in terms of calculating various risks that are brought about by life-changing, natural, and catastrophic events. Through risk modeling […]

What is free enterprise?

Free enterprise refers to an economic system that allows people to create and conduct business in order to make a profit from it and without too much meddling from the government in terms of business practice rules and regulations.  The main feature of a free enterprise economy is that businesses are allowed to compete with […]

What is MCIF?

MCIF or Marketing Customer Information File refers to a computerized filing system containing details and accounts of an organization’s existing customers.  In simple terms, having MCIF is equivalent to having a full database of existing customer accounts and their associated relationships.  The besting thing about getting a MCIF is that it not only provide basic […]

What is an ITF bank account?

‘ITF bank accounts’ refer to accounts that are set up in such a way that the account owner is able to designate a beneficiary when he/she dies.  The ‘ITF’ term in the bank account stands for “in trust for,” and this literally pertains to the authority given by the account owner to the named person […]

What is a CVS number?

A CVS number refers to a credit card’s security value or number.  Some credit card companies refer to this security value as a CVV or card verification value while others use CSC or card security code. Some people also equate a CVS number to other terms such as card code verification number or the signature […]

What is an EOQ formula?

‘EOQ formula’ refers to a formula to determine ‘Economic Order Quantity.’  This formula is applicable to businesses that involve the selling of goods and maintaining optimal inventory levels to keep up with operational demands.  In these types of businesses, EOQ is the optimum order quantity that leads to the greatest economy in terms of purchasing […]

What is an APF number?

What is an APF number? APF number refers to the Approved Project Financial number or code and this is provided by various financing companies in India that are involved with housing and related developments. This particular code is given to the authorized builder of a house, building, or similar project. When a person for example […]

What is Fayolism?

What is Fayolism? Fayolism refers to a management style or theory developed by Henri Fayol back in the early 1900s. The theory basically focused on supposed responsibilities of managers to ensure that all concerns are taken-cared of and no misunderstandings will occur between the management and the general workforce. With emphasis on so-called managerial duties, […]

What is a DuPont analysis?

What is a DuPont analysis? ‘DuPont analysis’ refers to a formula that measures a company’s financial performance in terms of ROE or ‘return on equity.’  Its name comes from DuPont Corporation which is credited for creating and using the performance formula. Based on the DuPont analysis formula, a company’s ROE performance is mainly affected by […]

What is kitting?

What is kitting? ‘Kitting’ is a business process wherein individual products that may have some relation with each other will be packed and/or sold as one product group or “kit.” Typical inventory guidelines for kitting still record the products one by one and by group or kit.  Many industries use kitting as a means of […]

What is HGS?

What is HGS? ‘HGS’ stands for ‘Hinduja Global Solutions,’ an Indian company that provides BPO, or Business Process Outsourcing services, to various organizations around the globe.  Its main headquarters is located in the city of Bangalore, but it also holds several office locations in different countries including the Philippines, Canada, United Kingdom, and the U.S. […]

What is FWC?

What is FWC? ‘FWC,’ or ‘functional work capacity’ refers to some form of evaluation to determine whether a person has the actual physical and functional ability or competence for a specific job, function, or occupation.  The results of the series of tests will then be compared with the common work standards and guidelines as set […]

What is Kozmo?

What is Kozmo? ‘Kozmo’ refers to the online company that offered free delivery for various goods like books, magazines, food, and video games, among others.  It was founded back in 1998 as ‘Kozmo.com’ and was one of the major players of the so-called ‘dot-com’ boom, referring to the increased hype and activity among online business […]

What does JNPT stand for?

What does JNPT stand for? ‘JNPT’ stands for ‘Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust,’ and it is India’s biggest container port.  It is also called “Nhava Sheva” and is situated at the area near Navi Mumbai.  This particular port was originally developed to lessen the container port traffic in the main port of Mumbai.  With its location […]

What is Hsinchu Park?

What is Hsinchu Park? Hsinchu Park is the short name for Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park, an area in Taiwan that is home to various, so-called, high technology or semiconductor companies.  This industrial park was established back in 1980 and was patterned after the U.S.’s Silicon Valley where many companies and big players in the […]

What is amortization expense?

What is amortization expense? ‘Amortization expense’ refers to the expense paid by individuals or companies for something over a specified period of time.  In simple terms, amortization expenses are what people owe others, and these are to be paid through regular installments for a specified period or number of months or years instead of giving […]

What is “CMTA”?

What is ‘CMTA’? ‘CMTA’ or ‘clearing member trade agreement’ refers to an agreement or understanding between one investor and more than one broker or brokerage firms with the intent of consolidating all possible trade orders for a single broker later.  This agreement involves a document that has to be signed by the investor and the […]

What is an EBT card?

EBT cards are Electronic Benefit Transfer cards issued by the U.S. government to citizens who may be in need of some kind of assistance for their daily and other needs.  Instead of the common practice of giving food items or cash to various beneficiaries, one may just opt to have an EBT card that will […]

What is FNMA Alliance?

What is FNMA Alliance? Many people have been asking what the FNMA Alliance is all about.  Some have heard of this organization through friends while others have direct experience with the organization through a series of phone calls.  Not many people exactly know much about what business the FNMA Alliance is engaged in with some […]

What is Dyuenet?

What is Dyuenet? Dyuenet is a company involved in Internet marketing.  Its international headquarters is located in Hong Kong, China, and it basically provides services for online stores and retailers in terms of marketing and promotions.  In the ever-increasing usage of the Internet by many people across different countries around the globe, the services of […]

What is DTA?

What is DTA? ‘DTA,’ or ‘domestic tariff areas’ are areas or zones that are located outside India’s SEZ and/or EOU. SEZ, or special economic zones, are specific locations wherein businesses typically function with less hassles for foreign investors in terms of taxes,  tariffs, and procedural guidelines.  EOU’s, or Export Oriented Units, meanwhile, are created similarly […]

What is an AQSIQ license?

An AQSIQ license refers to the certification issued by the General Admission of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China to foreign suppliers of scrap or waste goods and materials.  Before a foreign company can export waste goods to China, it must first get an AQSIQ license.  This particular license or […]

What is CNF in IRCTC?

The IRCTC, or Indian Railway Catering Tourism Corporation, is a company that is involved with tourism, catering, and online ticketing services for the parent organization, Indian Railways, which is a state-owned enterprise that operates a huge network of railways across India.  ‘CNF,’ meanwhile, refers to a ‘confirmed’ status for passenger bookings that are made online. […]

What is EFTPS?

What is EFTPS? EFTPS or Electronic Federal Tax Payment System is literally an “electronic” way of paying taxes for American taxpayers.  Whether the taxpayer is an individual or a business entity, taxes may be filed using means such as via phone call to a customer service hotline or through the online channel.  This tax-paying system […]

What is DMR in Cognos?

What is DMR in Cognos? DMR is a modelling technique from Cognos.  DMR stands for Dimensionally Modelled Relational and Cognos refers to the developer of various software involving business intelligence.  Cognos is also considered a big name in the field of business intelligence providing various tools for large companies and enterprises.  Now under the IBM […]

What is FMP?

What is FMP? FMP or Fixed Maturity Plan is a type of mutual fund that involves investing in debt with a maturity date that is pre-determined and fixed. Through FMPs, investors will be able to earn some income by means of interest payments but with quite minimal risk. Fixed Maturity plans are also referred to […]

What is Cash Flow?

What is Cash Flow? Cash flow is basically a financial term that involves all the cash of a particular company including those that are created or received and those that are spent as operations expense. And since it involves all the cash that a company is able to generate and spend, cash flow figures can […]

What is Churn?

What is Churn? In the field of business, a churn refers to some form of turnover or some kind of attrition. It may be applied internally to the own customers of a particular company, and also externally to the customers that it serves. The term “churn” is said to be borrowed from a procedure involved […]

What is EOQ Inventory?

What is EOQ Inventory? EOQ stands for “Economic Order Quantity” and it refers the best level of inventory that a company can have in relation to costs and expenses that nthis same company shoulders in terms of production, inventory holding, demand rate, and other production variables. When quantifying EOQ, it basically points to how much […]

What is DPMO?

What is DPMO? DPMO or Defects per Million Opportunities refers to a measure of procedure or service efficiency. It is part of a business management strategy called Six Sigma which aims to improve processes within organizations by means of identifying and analyzing the reasons behind “defects” in a particular process. If there are flaws in […]

What is Lusitania?

What is Lusitania? Lusitania or RMS Lusitania is a passenger ship or ocean liner which was built by British company – John Brown and Company. This particular company was based in Scotland and offered passenger services with the Cunard Line back in 1907. At the time, this ship which was designed by Leonard Peskett, was […]

What is GNP and GDP?

What is GNP and GDP? GNP stands for Gross National Product while GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product. Both terms represent as indicators of the economic stability or soundness of a particular country. The main difference between the two economic indicators is that GDP has a scope limited to “domestic” location, while GNP covers all […]

What is CND?

What is CND? CND stands for Calling Number Delivery and it refers to a service offered by telecommunications companies to customers under the residential and small business categories. This service provides the receiver of the call with the calling party’s directory or phone number which is reflected on the phone equipment. CND is more commonly […]

What is a Derivative?

What is a Derivative? In the world of business and finance, a derivative refers to a form of security which has a value that depends on a particular asset product. If the value of this particular asset changes with the market conditions, so is the value of the derivative. These assets from which the value […]

What is BIG?

What is BIG? BIG stands for “basic income guarantee” and it refers to a government-initiated program for social security, especially intended for people that are poor and live below the poverty line. The main concept of this program is the provision of some form of regular income to citizens covered under this program. This income […]

What are Bank Routing Numbers?

What are Bank Routing Numbers? Bank Routing Numbers are numeric codes that appear on bank checks and other negotiable instruments to basically give identification from which bank or financial institution a particular check is drawn. All banks in the US for example have unique 9-digit routing numbers or routing transit numbers which used to be […]

What is Globalization?

What is Globalization? Globalization is a term that has several meanings and applications but generally refers to the increased cooperation between different countries in terms of trade and commerce. Most people agree that the term “globalization” started as an economic term which covers the unification of the world’s economies for better trading of goods and […]

What is Bumper to Bumper Warranty?

What is Bumper to Bumper Warranty? Bumper to bumper warranty refers to warranty coverage for a new car bought by a customer. From the term itself, “bumper to bumper” literally means that the specific car is covered with a certain warranty from the “front bumper” to the “back bumper”. Though this is not an absolute […]

What is a Maquiladora?

What is a Maquiladora? A maquiladora refers to a company that operates in Mexico for the manufacture of certain goods. What differentiates it from the usual company setup is that this type of company is subject to special rules when it comes to the import and export of goods. Under Mexico’s “maquila program”, companies may […]

What is HDHP?

What is HDHP? HDHP refers to a health insurance plan called “High Deductible Health Plan”. From the term itself, it is a type of health insurance plan that involves a high deductible but with low premiums. Deductible is the amount a person is required to pay the insurance company before it could give out the […]

What is CWO?

What is CWO? CWO or “cash with order” is a business transaction that involves the payment of cash at the time the goods are ordered. It literally explains itself that one must pay for the goods while the order is being placed. The buyer in this transaction is aware of the idea that he/she should […]

What is McDonaldization?

What is McDonaldization? McDonaldization is a sociological term coined by a man named George Ritzer. Through a book that he released back in 1993 entitled “The McDonaldization of Society”, he likens the cultural and social development of man to that of the famous fastfood chain. The main concept of McDonaldization involves some form of rationalization […]